Ceremony marking the entering of the girl into adult observance of Jewish religious activities.
Term used for congregations in Islam that are partly set apart from the general community of Islam.
City in western Iran with about 690,000 inhabitants. Economical base is production of grain, flour, textiles, oil, sugar, electric equipment, and carpets. Majority of population is Kurdish. Includes brief history.
City in Turkey with about 1,050,000 inhabitants, situated a few kilometers inland from the Sea of Marmara. Noted for its green mosque, sulphur springs and baths.
Palestinian politician and guerilla leader. Also known as Abu Nidal. Includes biography. (1937-2002).
Honorary title used for spiritual leaders in Sufism, for prominent Shaykhs. From word meaning "gate", refers to one who can lead the believers into communication with the other side, the divine spheres.
Beduins immigrating to Maghreb, mainly Algeria and Tunisia, in the 11th century, coming from Egypt.
Opening phrase of all suras in the Koran, meaning "In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate".
In Islam, divine blessing that is normally associated with holy men or women, waliy, either in life or in death.
City in southern Iraq with an estimated 1.3 million inhabitants. Economy is focused on refining and exporting of oil and chemicals, and agricultural production of wool, grain and dates.