Political characteristics of city as written by Aristotle.
An account describing the peoples and geography of North Africa west of Egypt.
Article on significant historical elements of the city-state.
Excerpts from ancient texts with artistic depictions, topography, table of dates, bibliography and links .
Directory of links about the explorer and his expedition.
Historical essay with images and map.
A complete history of the empire by B. H. Warmington, 1960 by subscription.
Complete online book by Alfred J. M. A. Church, 1990 by subscription.
A biographical article with in-line links.
Background information with a historical timeline, including images and links.