Fourth-century Christological heresy propounded by Apollinaris of Laodicea. The theory that Jesus had a human body and soul, but that the Logos took the place of the human spirit or mind in Jesus. Solemnly condemned at the Council of Constantinople in 381.
A modification of Monophysitism proposing that Christ had no human free will. Rejected by the Third Council of Constantinople (680).
Founded by Arius, belief asserting that Christ was not God like the Father, but a creature made in time. Rejected by the Council of Constantinople (381).
The theory that the man Jesus at some point in time became the Son of God only by adoption. Strictly speaking, refers to an eighth-century Spanish heresy, but the term is also used to cover similar beliefs.
Docetism, from the Greek "dokeo" (to seem, to appear) was the contention that Christ merely seemed to be human and only appeared to be born, to suffer, and to die. Already in New Testament times, the Gospel of John opposes Docetism, and so do Ignatius, Irenaeus, and other Fathers.
Belief attributed to Nestorius that Christ's two natures reflect two persons, and denying of the Virgin Birth. Rejected by the Council of Ephesus (431).
Belief founded by Pelagius that denied original sin as well as Christian grace. Rejected by the Council of Carthage (481)
Rejected the dual nature of Christ. Rejected by the Council of Chalcedon (451).
Two varieties: the earlier group called Ebionites denied the divinity of Christ; the later Ebionites were a Gnostic sect who believed that matter was eternal and was God's body.
The so-called Dynamic Monarchians were actually a form of adoptionism. Monarchianism, properly speaking, refers to the Modalists. Denial of the Trinity, assertion that there is only one Divine Person, who appears in three different roles. Noetians and Sabellians were two schools of Modalism.